{"status":"ok","message-type":"work","message-version":"1.0.0","message":{"indexed":{"date-parts":[[2023,1,1]],"date-time":"2023-01-01T06:06:43Z","timestamp":1672553203792},"reference-count":25,"publisher":"Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)","content-domain":{"domain":[],"crossmark-restriction":false},"short-container-title":["ACM J. Exp. Algorithmics"],"published-print":{"date-parts":[[1998,9]]},"abstract":"We measure the performance, in the task of apportioning the Congress of the United States, of an algorithm combining a heuristic-driven (simulated annealing) search with an exact-computation dynamic programming evaluation of the apportionments visited in the search. We compare this with the actual algorithm currently used in the United States to apportion Congress, and with a number of other algorithms that have been proposed. We conclude that on every set of census data in this country's history, the heuristic-driven apportionment provably yields far fairer apportionments than those of any of the other algorithm considered, including the algorithm currently used by the United States for Congressional apportionment.<\/jats:p>","DOI":"10.1145\/297096.297106","type":"journal-article","created":{"date-parts":[[2005,8,2]],"date-time":"2005-08-02T06:34:09Z","timestamp":1122964449000},"page":"1","source":"Crossref","is-referenced-by-count":6,"title":["Power balance and apportionment algorithms for the United States Congress"],"prefix":"10.1145","volume":"3","author":[{"given":"Lane A.","family":"Hemaspaandra","sequence":"first","affiliation":[{"name":"Univ. of Rochester"}]},{"given":"Kulathur S.","family":"Rajasethupathy","sequence":"additional","affiliation":[{"name":"SUNY-Brockport"}]},{"given":"Prasanna","family":"Sethupathy","sequence":"additional","affiliation":[{"name":"Stanford Univ."}]},{"given":"Marius","family":"Zimand","sequence":"additional","affiliation":[{"name":"Georgia Southwestern State Univ."}]}],"member":"320","published-online":{"date-parts":[[1998,9]]},"reference":[{"key":"e_1_2_2_1_1","volume-title":"Simulated annealing and Boltzmann machines: A stochastic approach to combinatorial optimization and neural computing","author":"AARTS E.","unstructured":"AARTS , E. AND KORST , J. 1989. Simulated annealing and Boltzmann machines: A stochastic approach to combinatorial optimization and neural computing . Wiley . AARTS, E. AND KORST, J. 1989. Simulated annealing and Boltzmann machines: A stochastic approach to combinatorial optimization and neural computing. Wiley."},{"key":"e_1_2_2_2_1","volume-title":"Fair Representation: Meeting the Ideal of One Man, One Vote","author":"BALINSKI M.","year":"1982","unstructured":"BALINSKI , M. AND YOUNG , H. 1982 . Fair Representation: Meeting the Ideal of One Man, One Vote . Yale University Press, New Haven. BALINSKI, M. AND YOUNG, H. 1982. Fair Representation: Meeting the Ideal of One Man, One Vote. Yale University Press, New Haven."},{"key":"e_1_2_2_3_1","first-page":"1","volume-title":"H. YOUNG Ed., Fair Allocation","author":"BALINSKI M.","year":"1985","unstructured":"BALINSKI , M. AND YOUNG , H. 1985 . Fair representation: Meeting the ideal of one man, one vote . In H. YOUNG Ed., Fair Allocation , pp. 1 - 29 . American Mathematical Society. Proceedings of Symposia in Applied Mathematics, V. 33. BALINSKI, M. AND YOUNG, H. 1985. Fair representation: Meeting the ideal of one man, one vote. In H. YOUNG Ed., Fair Allocation, pp. 1-29. American Mathematical Society. Proceedings of Symposia in Applied Mathematics, V. 33."},{"key":"e_1_2_2_4_1","doi-asserted-by":"publisher","DOI":"10.1016\/0020-0190(91)90140-D"},{"key":"e_1_2_2_5_1","first-page":"12","article-title":"Plan de constitution, present\u00e9 \u00e0 la convention nationale les 15 et 16 Fevrier 1793. In A. C. O'CONNOR AND M. ARAGO Eds","author":"CONDORCET J.","year":"1847","unstructured":"CONDORCET , J. 1847 . Plan de constitution, present\u00e9 \u00e0 la convention nationale les 15 et 16 Fevrier 1793. In A. C. O'CONNOR AND M. ARAGO Eds ., Oeuvres de Condorcet , V. 12 . Firmin Didot Fr\u00e8res. CONDORCET, J. 1847. Plan de constitution, present\u00e9 \u00e0 la convention nationale les 15 et 16 Fevrier 1793. In A. C. O'CONNOR AND M. ARAGO Eds., Oeuvres de Condorcet, V. 12. Firmin Didot Fr\u00e8res.","journal-title":"Oeuvres de Condorcet"},{"key":"e_1_2_2_6_1","doi-asserted-by":"publisher","DOI":"10.1287\/moor.4.2.99"},{"key":"e_1_2_2_7_1","volume-title":"Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NP-Completeness","author":"GAREY M.","unstructured":"GAREY , M. AND JOHNSON , D. 1979. Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NP-Completeness . W. H. Freeman and Company . GAREY, M. AND JOHNSON, D. 1979. Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NP-Completeness. W. H. Freeman and Company."},{"key":"e_1_2_2_8_1","doi-asserted-by":"publisher","DOI":"10.1006\/jcss.1995.1032"},{"key":"e_1_2_2_9_1","doi-asserted-by":"publisher","DOI":"10.1126\/science.220.4598.671"},{"key":"e_1_2_2_10_1","volume-title":"Values of large games, IV: Evaluating the electoral college by Monte Carlo techniques. Research Memorandum RM-2651 (ASTIA No. AD 246277) (Sept.)","author":"MANN I.","unstructured":"MANN , I. AND SHAPLEY , L. 1960. Values of large games, IV: Evaluating the electoral college by Monte Carlo techniques. Research Memorandum RM-2651 (ASTIA No. AD 246277) (Sept.) , The Rand Corporation , Santa Monica, CA . MANN, I. AND SHAPLEY, L. 1960. Values of large games, IV: Evaluating the electoral college by Monte Carlo techniques. Research Memorandum RM-2651 (ASTIA No. AD 246277) (Sept.), The Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, CA."},{"key":"e_1_2_2_11_1","volume-title":"Values of large games, VI: Evaluating the electoral college exactly. Research Memorandum RM-3158-PR","author":"MANN I.","unstructured":"MANN , I. AND SHAPLEY , L. 1962. Values of large games, VI: Evaluating the electoral college exactly. Research Memorandum RM-3158-PR , The Rand Corporation , Santa Monica, CA . MANN, I. AND SHAPLEY, L. 1962. Values of large games, VI: Evaluating the electoral college exactly. Research Memorandum RM-3158-PR, The Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, CA."},{"key":"e_1_2_2_12_1","doi-asserted-by":"publisher","DOI":"10.1063\/1.1699114"},{"key":"e_1_2_2_13_1","doi-asserted-by":"publisher","DOI":"10.1007\/BF01753703"},{"key":"e_1_2_2_14_1","doi-asserted-by":"publisher","DOI":"10.1007\/BF01303057"},{"key":"e_1_2_2_15_1","volume-title":"An Introduction to Positive Political Theory","author":"RIKER W.","unstructured":"RIKER , W. AND ORDESHOOK , P. 1973. An Introduction to Positive Political Theory . Prentice-Hall . RIKER, W. AND ORDESHOOK, P. 1973. An Introduction to Positive Political Theory. Prentice-Hall."},{"key":"e_1_2_2_16_1","first-page":"24","article-title":"Measurement of power in political systems. In W. LUCAS Ed., Game Theory and its Applications, pp. 69-81. American Mathematical Society","author":"SHAPLEY L.","year":"1981","unstructured":"SHAPLEY , L. 1981 . Measurement of power in political systems. In W. LUCAS Ed., Game Theory and its Applications, pp. 69-81. American Mathematical Society . Proceedings of Symposia in Applied Mathematics , V. 24 . SHAPLEY, L. 1981. Measurement of power in political systems. In W. LUCAS Ed., Game Theory and its Applications, pp. 69-81. American Mathematical Society. Proceedings of Symposia in Applied Mathematics, V. 24.","journal-title":"Proceedings of Symposia in Applied Mathematics"},{"key":"e_1_2_2_17_1","doi-asserted-by":"publisher","DOI":"10.2307\/1951053"},{"key":"e_1_2_2_18_1","first-page":"603","volume-title":"Proceedings of the 24th ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing","author":"SIPSER M.","year":"1992","unstructured":"SIPSER , M. 1992 . The history and status of the P versus NP question . In Proceedings of the 24th ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing , pp. 603 - 618 . ACM Press. 10.1145\/129712.129771 SIPSER, M. 1992. The history and status of the P versus NP question. In Proceedings of the 24th ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, pp. 603-618. ACM Press. 10.1145\/129712.129771"},{"key":"e_1_2_2_19_1","first-page":"477","volume-title":"Game Theory and Political Science","author":"STRAFFIN P.","year":"1978","unstructured":"STRAFFIN , P. 1978 . Probability models for power indices. In P. ORDESHOOK Ed ., Game Theory and Political Science , pp. 477 - 510 . New York University Press. STRAFFIN, P. 1978. Probability models for power indices. In P. ORDESHOOK Ed., Game Theory and Political Science, pp. 477-510. New York University Press."},{"key":"e_1_2_2_20_1","doi-asserted-by":"crossref","unstructured":"STRAFFIN P. JR. 1977. Homogeneity independence and power indices. Public Choice 30 (Summer). STRAFFIN P. JR. 1977. Homogeneity independence and power indices. Public Choice 30 (Summer) .","DOI":"10.1007\/BF01718820"},{"key":"e_1_2_2_21_1","first-page":"91","article-title":"United States Department of Commerce et al. versus Montana et al","year":"1992","unstructured":"Supreme. 1992 . United States Department of Commerce et al. versus Montana et al . US Supreme Court Case 91 - 860 . Decided March 31, 1992. Supreme. 1992. United States Department of Commerce et al. versus Montana et al. US Supreme Court Case 91-860. Decided March 31, 1992.","journal-title":"US Supreme Court Case"},{"key":"e_1_2_2_22_1","doi-asserted-by":"publisher","DOI":"10.1137\/0220053"},{"key":"e_1_2_2_23_1","doi-asserted-by":"publisher","DOI":"10.1137\/0221023"},{"key":"e_1_2_2_24_1","doi-asserted-by":"publisher","DOI":"10.1016\/0304-3975(79)90044-6"},{"key":"e_1_2_2_25_1","doi-asserted-by":"publisher","DOI":"10.1137\/0208032"}],"container-title":["ACM Journal of Experimental Algorithmics"],"original-title":[],"language":"en","link":[{"URL":"https:\/\/dl.acm.org\/doi\/pdf\/10.1145\/297096.297106","content-type":"unspecified","content-version":"vor","intended-application":"similarity-checking"}],"deposited":{"date-parts":[[2022,12,31]],"date-time":"2022-12-31T10:41:54Z","timestamp":1672483314000},"score":1,"resource":{"primary":{"URL":"https:\/\/dl.acm.org\/doi\/10.1145\/297096.297106"}},"subtitle":[],"short-title":[],"issued":{"date-parts":[[1998,9]]},"references-count":25,"alternative-id":["10.1145\/297096.297106"],"URL":"http:\/\/dx.doi.org\/10.1145\/297096.297106","relation":{},"ISSN":["1084-6654","1084-6654"],"issn-type":[{"value":"1084-6654","type":"print"},{"value":"1084-6654","type":"electronic"}],"subject":["Theoretical Computer Science"],"published":{"date-parts":[[1998,9]]}}}